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特别推荐:宋代龙泉窑花觚

来源:未知 发布时间 2019-12-24 22:03

官窑是中国宋代五大瓷窑之一,其制作技术传承于唐代秘色瓷和五代柴窑,在千峰翠色的基础上增加了非常莹润的玉质感。作为统治阶级的重要礼器和上层社会的赏玩之物,它冰青玉洁、色调淡雅、造型古朴,充分体现了宋代先人的聪明才智,成为中国瓷器发展史上的一个重要里程碑。宋代在中国历史上是一个重要时期,其经济飞速发展,生活极其富足,工业非常繁荣。朝廷主要收入逐步从农业转向工商业了,农业社会逐步向工业社会迈进了。正向清明上河图所描绘的那样经济繁荣,人民安居乐业。这是宋官窑瓷器产生的经济基础和社会背景。

Guan kiln is one of the five biggest kilns in Song Dynasty in China. Its production technology is inherited from secret color porcelain of Tang Dynasty and Chai kiln of Five Dynasties. It adds a very lustrous jade sense on the basis of Qianfeng green color. As an important ritual ware of the ruling class and an object for the enjoyment of the upper class, it is green and jade, elegant in color and simple in shape, which fully embodies the wisdom of the ancestors of the Song Dynasty, and has become an important milestone in the development history of China's porcelain. Song Dynasty is an important period in Chinese history, with rapid economic development, extremely rich life and prosperous industry. The main income of the court gradually changed from agriculture to industry and commerce, and the agricultural society gradually moved forward to the industrial society. As depicted in the riverside map of Qingming Dynasty, the economy is prosperous and the people live and work in peace and contentment. This is the economic basis and social background of the production of the official kiln porcelain in Song Dynasty.

 

北宋大观、政和年间,在汴京附近设立窑场,由官府直接经营,专烧宫廷用瓷器,即北宋官窑。南宋顾文荐《负睻杂录》记载:“宋宣政间(宣和、政和即公元1111-1125年)京师自置窑烧造,名曰‘官窑’”,南宋叶寘在其《垣斋笔衡》中对北京官窑亦有记载:“政和京师自置窑烧造,名曰‘官窑’”。明代《事物绀珠》、《留留青》因袭此说。当时的京师即汴京(今河南开封),因宋代汴京遗址已沉入地下,至今日为止,尚未发掘出北宋官窑遗址。对于北宋官窑遗址缺乏考古发掘地资料和充足的文献资料的支撑,因此,时至今日,关于北宋官窑遗址在何处,仍有不同说法,一般有三种说法:一说北宋官窑即为汝窑;二说否认北宋官窑的存在;三说为北宋官窑即为汴京官窑,它与南宋时的修内司官窑先后存在。支持第三种说法的人较多。南宋时先后设立了“修内司窑”和“郊坛下窑”。至今杭州凤凰山麓尚留有:南宋官窑老虎洞窑址、南宋官窑郊坛下窑址等历史遗迹,现均为国家级文物保护单位。

In the period of Daguan and Zhenghe of the Northern Song Dynasty, a kiln was set up near Bianjing, which was directly operated by the government and specialized in the production of porcelain for the court, that is, the official kiln of the Northern Song Dynasty. Gu Wenjian of the Southern Song dynasty recorded that "the imperial kiln was built by the imperial master in Xuanhe (Xuanhe, Zhenghe, i.e. 1111-1125 A.D.), which was also named" official kiln ". Ye Cong of the Southern Song Dynasty also recorded in his yuanzhai biheng:" the imperial kiln was built by the imperial master and the imperial master, which was named "official kiln". The Ming Dynasty "things cyan bead", "stay green" follow this theory. Bianjing (Kaifeng, Henan Province) was the capital at that time. Because the Bianjing site in Song Dynasty has sunk into the ground, so far, no official kiln site in Northern Song Dynasty has been excavated. There is a lack of archaeological data and sufficient literature support for the site of the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty. So far, there are still different opinions about where the site of the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty is located. Generally, there are three opinions: one is that the official kiln in the northern Song Dynasty is Ru kiln; the other is that it denies the existence of the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty; the third is that the official kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty is Bianjing kiln, which successively exists with the official kiln in the Southern Song Dynasty. There are more people supporting the third view. In the Southern Song Dynasty, "xiuneisi kiln" and "jiaotanxia kiln" were successively set up. Up to now, there are still some historical sites left at the foot of Fenghuang Mountain in Hangzhou, such as LAOHUDONG kiln in the Southern Song Dynasty, tanxia kiln in the suburb of the Southern Song Dynasty, which are all state-level cultural relics protection units.

 

宋官窑瓷器品种非常丰富,按用途分为礼器、陈设器、日用器,其中礼器、陈设器占主要地位,因为宋朝时期每年都要举行隆重的祭奠活动,祭天、祭地、祭先祖,这就需要大量的礼器。又因为当时青铜器逐步为瓷器所取代,所以从造型上明显看出宋官窑瓷器中有很多造型古朴的仿青铜器型。官窑的制胎一般就近取土,胎色大多呈灰色、深灰色、深褐色,这是因为胎土中掺入含铁量较高的紫金土所致。器口薄釉处和圈足露胎处显出深褐色,正像古人所云“紫口铁足”。釉色有多种,有天青、粉青、灰青、米黄、月白、翠绿,北宋官窑中粉青、月白色较多。按古人的评价:“粉青为上,浅白(月白)次之,油灰(灰青)色色之下也”。釉面有大小开片,种类有牛毛纹、蟹爪纹、冰裂纹、鱼鳞纹、鱼子纹。古人评价:“取冰裂鳝血为上,梅花片黑纹次之,细碎纹纹之下也”。总之,宋代官窑瓷必须符合皇家的审美观,它没有精美的雕饰以哗众,也不靠艳彩涂绘以媚人,唯独以古朴庄重的器型、莹润如玉的釉色、鳞鳞如波的纹片配合着紫口铁足之美,堪称宋代审美的代表。

There are many kinds of official kilns in Song Dynasty, which are divided into ritual ware, furnishing ware and daily use ware according to their uses. Ritual ware and furnishing ware are the main parts, because in Song Dynasty, ceremonious sacrificial activities were held every year, such as sacrificing to heaven, land and ancestors, which requires a lot of ritual ware. At that time, the bronze ware was gradually replaced by porcelain, so it was obvious from the modeling that there were many ancient and simple imitation bronze ware types in the porcelain of song official kiln. The tyre making in Guanyao is generally from the nearest place, and the tyre color is mostly gray, dark gray and dark brown, which is caused by the incorporation of purple gold soil with high iron content into the tyre soil. The thin glaze of the mouth and the exposed part of the ring foot show dark brown, just like the ancient saying "Purple mouth and iron foot". There are many kinds of glaze colors, such as sky blue, pink green, grey green, beige, moon white and green. In the official kilns of the Northern Song Dynasty, there are more pink green and moon white. According to the evaluation of the ancients, "pink and blue are the top, light white (moon white) is the second, and putty (gray and blue) is also under the color.". There are different kinds of glaze, such as ox hair grain, crab claw grain, ice crack, fish scale grain and fish roe grain. The ancients said: "take the ice eel blood as the top, followed by the black pattern of the plum blossom, and also under the fine grain.". In a word, the official kiln porcelain of Song Dynasty must conform to the aesthetic view of the royal family. It does not have exquisite carving to attract people, nor does it rely on colorful painting to attract people. It can be regarded as the representative of the aesthetic of Song Dynasty, only with the simple and solemn shape of utensils, the glaze color of glittering and lustrous jade, the pattern of scales like waves, and the beauty of purple mouth and iron feet.

 

此官窑花觚,敞口向天而向,即为‘上承天露’或‘秉承天道’之意。长颈,方腹,高圈足外撇。器体胎体厚重,形体硕大,造型古朴,典雅迷人,胎质细腻致密,通体施青釉,釉汁肥厚,滋润如玉,通体开片,裂纹层层叠叠清晰而现,观之犹如坚冰炸裂,具有较强的立体之感,而以手感之,且又光洁平滑。其高雅素装摄人眼目,独具艺术魅力。因官窑瓷器属于非商品性生产,产品少。其中精者选进宫,次者掩埋等处理,不许流入民间,历代帝王尚且均将官窑瓷器视为珍宝,世代相传,不作明器陪葬,足见其珍贵程度,故流传下来且保存完好的官窑瓷器如此件官窑花觚就更为珍稀难得,具有极高的收藏价值。

The Goblet of the official kiln is open to the sky, which means "inheriting the heavenly dew" or "inheriting the heavenly way". Long neck, square belly, high circle feet. The carcass is thick, large, simple, elegant and charming. The carcass is fine and dense. The glaze is thick and moist as jade. The cracks are clear and appear in layers. It looks like solid ice and cracks. It has a strong sense of three-dimensional. It feels smooth and smooth by hand. Its elegant plain clothes are eye-catching and unique in artistic charm. Due to the non-commercial production of Guanyao porcelain, there are few products. Among them, the elite were selected into the palace, and the second was buried. They were not allowed to enter the folk. The emperors of all dynasties regarded the porcelain of the official kiln as a treasure. It was handed down from generation to generation, and they did not bury it as a Ming ware, which showed the degree of its preciousness. Therefore, such a well preserved porcelain of the official kiln as a flower Goblet of the official kiln is even more rare and has a very high collection value.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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